Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2019
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
Basis of Presentation and Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements were prepared using generally accepted accounting principles for interim financial information and the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 8 of Regulation S-X. Accordingly, these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements do not include all information or notes required by generally accepted accounting principles for annual financial statements and should be read in conjunction with the Company’s annual consolidated financial statements included within the Company’s Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018, as filed with the SEC on April 3, 2019 and subsequently amended on April 12, 2019.
The preparation of the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with these accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements; and the reported amounts of expenses during the reported period. Ultimate results could differ from the estimates of management. The unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of DropCar, Inc. and subsidiaries, all of which are wholly owned. All significant intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.
In the opinion of management, the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements included herein contain all adjustments necessary to present fairly the Company's financial position and the results of its operations and cash flows for the interim periods presented. Such adjustments are of a normal recurring nature. The results of operations for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2019 may not be indicative of results for the full year.
Significant Accounting Policies
In February 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 842, Leases, which requires lessees to recognize most leases on their balance sheets as a right-of-use asset with a corresponding lease liability. Lessor accounting under the standard is substantially unchanged. Additional qualitative and quantitative disclosures are also required. The Company adopted the standard effective January 1, 2019 using the cumulative-effect adjustment transition method, which applies the provisions of the standard at the effective date without adjusting the comparative periods presented. The Company adopted all practical expedients and elected the following accounting policies related to this standard:
Right-of-use assets and lease liabilities are recognized based on the present value of the future minimum lease payments over the lease term at the commencement date for leases exceeding 12 months. Minimum lease payments include only the fixed lease component of the agreement.
The Company’s operating leases do not provide an implicit rate that can readily be determined. Therefore, the Company uses a discount rate based on its incremental borrowing rate.
Operating lease expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term and is included in cost of sales and general and administrative expenses. Amortization expense for finance (capital) leases is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term and is included in cost of sales or general and administrative expenses, while interest expense for finance leases is recognized using the effective interest method.
Adoption of this standard resulted in the recognition of operating lease right-of-use assets of approximately $23,000 (including a reclassification from Prepaid expenses of a prepaid lease approximating $9,500) and corresponding lease liabilities of approximately $13,500 on the consolidated balance sheet as of January 1, 2019. The standard did not materially impact operating results or liquidity. Disclosures related to the amount, timing and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases are included in Note 8, Leases.
In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-07, Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting, which simplifies the accounting for nonemployee share-based payment transactions. The amendments specify that Topic 718 applies to all share- based payment transactions in which a grantor acquires goods or services to be used or consumed in a grantor’s own operations by issuing share-based payment awards. The guidance was adopted effective January 1, 2019, and the adoption of this ASU did not have a material effect on its consolidated financial statements.
Aside from the adoption of ASU 2016-02, as described above, there have been no other material changes to the significant accounting policies or recent accounting pronouncements previously disclosed in DropCar, Inc.'s 2018 annual consolidated financial statements included in the Company's Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“US GAAP”) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect amounts reported therein. Generally, matters subject to estimation and judgement include amounts related to accounts receivable realization, asset impairments, useful lives of property and equipment and capitalized software costs, deferred tax asset valuation allowances, and operating expense accruals. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
The Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2014-09, codified as ASC 606: Revenue from Contracts with Customers, which provides a single comprehensive model for entities to use in accounting for revenue arising from contracts with customers.
Revenue from contracts with customers is recognized when, or as, the Company satisfies its performance obligations by transferring the promised goods or services to the customers. A good or service is transferred to a customer when, or as, the customer obtains control of that good or service. A performance obligation may be satisfied over time or at a point in time. Revenue from a performance obligation satisfied over time is recognized by measuring the Company’s progress in satisfying the performance obligation in a manner that depicts the transfer of the goods or services to the customer. Revenue from a performance obligation satisfied at a point in time is recognized at the point in time that the Company determines the customer obtains control over the promised good or service. The amount of revenue recognized reflects the consideration the Company expects to be entitled to in exchange for those promised goods or services (i.e., the “transaction price”). In determining the transaction price, the Company considers multiple factors, including the effects of variable consideration. Variable consideration is included in the transaction price only to the extent it is probable that a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognized will not occur when the uncertainties with respect to the amount are resolved. In determining when to include variable consideration in the transaction price, the Company considers the range of possible outcomes, the predictive value of its past experiences, the time period of when uncertainties expect to be resolved and the amount of consideration that is susceptible to factors outside of the Company’s influence, such as the judgment and actions of third parties.
The Company’s contracts are generally designed to provide cash fees to the Company on a monthly basis or an agreed upfront rate based upon demand services. The Company’s performance obligation is satisfied over time as the service is provided continuously throughout the service period. The Company recognizes revenue evenly over the service period using a time-based measure because the Company is providing a continuous service to the customer. Contracts with minimum performance guarantees or price concessions include variable consideration and are subject to the revenue constraint. The Company uses an expected value method to estimate variable consideration for minimum performance guarantees and price concessions.
The Company offers a selection of subscriptions and on-demand services which include parking, valet, and access to other services. The contract terms are on a month-to-month subscription contract with fixed monthly or contract term fees. These subscription services include a fixed number of round-trip deliveries of the customer’s vehicle to a designated location. The Company allocates the purchase price among the performance obligations which results in deferring revenue until the service is utilized or the service period has expired.
On Demand Valet and Parking Services
The Company offers to consumers certain on demand services through its mobile application. The customer is billed at an hourly rate upon completion of the services. Revenue is recognized when the Company had satisfied all performance obligations which is upon completion of the service.
DropCar 360 Services on Demand Service
The Company offers to consumers certain services upon request including vehicle inspection, maintenance, car washes or to fill up with gas. The customers are charged a fee in addition to the cost of the third-party services provided. Revenue is recognized on a gross basis when the Company had satisfied all performance obligations which is upon completion of the service.
On Demand Business-To-Business
The Company also has contracts with car dealerships, car share programs and others in the automotive industry transporting vehicles. Revenue is recognized at the point in time all performance obligations are satisfied which is when the Company provides the delivery service of the vehicles.
The following table presents our revenues from contracts with customers disaggregated by revenue source.
The following presents our revenues from B2C and B2B customers.
Employee Stock-Based Compensation
The Company recognizes all employee share-based compensation as an expense in the financial statements. Equity-classified awards principally related to stock options, restricted stock units (“RSUs”) and equity-based compensation, are measured at the grant date fair value of the award. The Company determines grant date fair value of stock option awards using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. The fair value of RSUs are determined using the closing price of the Company’s common stock on the grant date. For service-based vesting grants, expense is recognized ratably over the requisite service period based on the number of options or shares. Stock-based compensation is reversed for forfeitures in the period of forfeiture.
Income (Loss) Per Share
Basic income (loss) per share is computed by dividing net loss attributable to common shareholders (the numerator) by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding (the denominator) for the period. In periods when the Company has income, the Company calculates basic earnings per share using the two-class method, if required, pursuant to ASC 260 Earnings Per Share. The two-class method was required effective with the issuance of convertible preferred stock in the past because this class of stock qualified as a participating security, giving the holder the right to receive dividends should dividends be declared on common stock. Under the two-class method, earnings for a period are allocated on a pro rata basis to the common stockholders and to the holders of convertible preferred stock based on the weighted average number of common shares outstanding and number of shares that could be issued upon conversion. In periods of losses, diluted loss per share is computed on the same basis as basic loss per share as the inclusion of any other potential shares outstanding would be anti-dilutive.
The following securities were excluded from weighted average diluted common shares outstanding for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2019 and 2018 because their inclusion would have been antidilutive.
Research and development costs, net
Costs are incurred in connection with research and development programs that are expected to contribute to future earnings. Such costs include labor, stock-based compensation, training, software subscriptions, and consulting. These amounts are charged to the condensed consolidated statement of operations as incurred. Total research and development expenses were $43,690 and $60,299 for the three months ended September 30, 2019 and 2018, respectively. Total research and development expenses were $161,002 and $238,431 for the nine months ended September 30, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
Recently Issued Accounting Standards
From time to time, new accounting pronouncements are issued by the FASB or other standard setting bodies. Unless otherwise discussed, the Company believes that the impact of recently issued standards that are not yet effective will not have a material impact on its consolidated financial position or results of operations upon adoption.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, Changes to Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurements, which will improve the effectiveness of disclosure requirements for recurring and nonrecurring fair value measurements. The standard removes, modifies, and adds certain disclosure requirements, and is effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2020. The Company is currently evaluating the impact this standard will have on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, “Financial Instruments – Credit Losses” to improve information on credit losses for financial assets and net investment in leases that are not accounted for at fair value through net income. ASU 2016-13 replaces the current incurred loss impairment methodology with a methodology that reflects expected credit losses. In April 2019 and May 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-04, “Codification Improvements to Topic 326, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses, Topic 815, Derivatives and Hedging, and Topic 825, Financial Instruments” and ASU No. 2019-05, “Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326): Targeted Transition Relief” which provided additional implementation guidance on the previously issued ASU. Management has not yet completed its assessment of the impact of the new standards on the Company’s financial statements. The Company is currently evaluating the effect the adoption of these ASUs will have on its condensed consolidated financial statements. These ASUs are effective for the Company in the first quarter of 2020.
The entire disclosure for the basis of accounting, or basis of presentation, used to prepare the financial statements (for example, US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, Other Comprehensive Basis of Accounting, IFRS).
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef