Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2020
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
NOTE 2. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Liquidity and Other Uncertainties
The consolidated financial statements have been prepared in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“GAAP”), which contemplates continuation of the Company as a going concern. The Company is subject to a number of risks similar to those of earlier stage commercial companies, including dependence on key individuals and products, the difficulties inherent in the development of a commercial market, the potential need to obtain additional capital, competition from larger companies, other technology companies and other technologies. The Company has a limited operating history and the sales and income potential of its business and market are unproven. As of December 31, 2020, the Company had cash balances totaling $36,537,097. The Company incurred net losses of $10,763,446 and $8,664,693 and negative cash flows from operations of $10,019,344 and $4,104,286 for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. In addition, overall working capital increased by $38,893,280 during the year ended December 31, 2020. The Company anticipates that it will continue to incur net losses into the foreseeable future and will need to raise additional capital to continue operations, however, throughout 2020 and in the first two months of 2021, the Company has raised sufficient cash to fund its operations for at least the next twelve months following the issuance of these consolidated financial statements.
Since early 2020, when the World Health Organization established the transmissible and pathogenic coronavirus a global pandemic, there have been business slowdowns and decreased demand for ARYO products. The outbreak of such a communicable disease has resulted in a widespread health crisis which has adversely affected general commercial activity and the economies and financial markets of many countries, including the United States. As the outbreak of the disease has continued through 2020 and into 2021, the measures taken by the governments of countries affected has adversely affected the Company’s business, financial condition, and results of operations. The pandemic had an adverse impact on AYRO’s sales and the demand for AYRO products in 2020, resulting in sales that were less than expected at the beginning of 2020. ARYO expects the pandemic to continue to have an adverse impact on sales and demand for products into 2021.
Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements represent the consolidation of the accounts of the Company and its subsidiary in conformity with GAAP. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the consolidated financial statements, in conformity with GAAP, requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. The Company’s most significant estimates include allowance for doubtful accounts, inventory, fair value of long-lived assets, useful lives for property, plant and equipment and intangibles, valuation of deferred tax asset allowance, and the measurement of stock-based compensation expenses. Actual results could differ from these estimates.
Certain reclassifications have been made to the prior period consolidated financial statements to conform to the current period financial statement presentation. These reclassifications had no effect on net earnings or cash flows as previously reported.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash consists of checking accounts. The Company considers all highly-liquid investments purchased with a maturity of three months or less at the time of purchase to be cash equivalents. The Company maintains total cash balances in one account which exceeds the federally insured limits. Management does not believe this results in any significant credit risk. The Company has no cash equivalents as of December 31, 2020 and 2019.
Fair Value Measurements
The Company applies Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 820, Fair Value Measurement (“ASC 820”), which establishes a framework for measuring fair value and clarifies the definition of fair value within that framework. ASC 820 defines fair value as an exit price, which is the price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability in the Company’s principal or most advantageous market in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. The fair value hierarchy established in ASC 820 generally requires an entity to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value. Observable inputs reflect the assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability and are developed based on market data obtained from sources independent of the reporting entity. Unobservable inputs reflect the entity’s own assumptions based on market data and the entity’s judgments about the assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability and are to be developed based on the best information available in the circumstances.
The carrying amounts of financial instruments reported in the accompanying consolidated financial statements for current assets and current liabilities approximate the fair value because of the immediate or short-term maturities of the financial instruments.
The valuation hierarchy is composed of three levels. The classification within the valuation hierarchy is based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. The levels within the valuation hierarchy are described below:
Level 1 — Assets and liabilities with unadjusted, quoted prices listed on active market exchanges. Inputs to the fair value measurement are observable inputs, such as quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2 — Inputs to the fair value measurement are determined using prices for recently traded assets and liabilities with similar underlying terms, as well as direct or indirect observable inputs, such as interest rates and yield curves that are observable at commonly quoted intervals.
Level 3 — Inputs to the fair value measurement are unobservable inputs, such as estimates, assumptions, and valuation techniques when little or no market data exists for the assets or liabilities.
As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company did not have any level 2 or level 3 instruments.
Accounts Receivable, Net
In the normal course of business, the Company extends credit to customers. Accounts receivable, less the allowance for doubtful accounts, reflect the net realizable value of receivables and approximate fair value. An allowance for doubtful accounts is maintained and reflects the best estimate of probable losses determined principally on the basis of historical experience and specific allowances for known troubled accounts. All accounts or portions thereof that are deemed to be uncollectible or that require an excessive collection cost are written off to the allowance for doubtful accounts. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company had reserved an allowance for doubtful accounts of $73,829 and $36,084, respectively. All account receivables are made on an unsecured basis.
Inventory consists of purchased chassis, cabs, batteries, truck beds and component parts which includes cost of raw materials, freight, direct labor, and related production overhead and are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value, as determined using a first-in, first-out method. Inventory also includes a fleet of internally manufactured vehicles that serve demonstration and other purposes, the balance of which is being depreciated over their useful lives. Management compares the cost of inventory with the net realizable value and, if applicable, an allowance is made for writing down the inventory to its net realizable value, if lower than cost. On an ongoing basis, inventory is reviewed for potential write-down for estimated obsolescence or unmarketable inventory based upon forecasts for future demand and market conditions.
Property and Equipment, Net
Property and equipment, net, are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is recorded over the shorter of the estimated useful life, of one to ten years, or the lease term of the applicable assets using the straight-line method beginning on the date an asset is placed in service. The Company regularly evaluates the estimated remaining useful lives of the Company’s property and equipment, net, to determine whether events or changes in circumstances warrant a revision to the remaining period of depreciation. Maintenance and repairs are charged to expense when incurred.
The estimated useful lives for significant property and equipment categories are as follows:
Long-Lived Assets, Including Definite-Lived Intangible Assets
Intangible assets are stated at cost less accumulated amortization. Amortization is generally recorded on a straight-line basis over estimated useful life of 5-10 years. The Company periodically reviews the estimated useful lives of intangible assets and makes adjustments when events indicate that a shorter life is appropriate.
Long-lived assets are evaluated for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the assets may not be recoverable through the estimated undiscounted future cash flows derived from such assets.
Factors that the Company considers in deciding when to perform an impairment review include significant changes in the Company’s forecasted projections for the asset or asset group for reasons including, but not limited to, significant under-performance of a product in relation to expectations, significant changes, or planned changes in the Company’s use of the assets, significant negative industry or economic trends, and new or competing products that enter the marketplace. The impairment test is based on a comparison of the undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated from the use of the asset group. If impairment is indicated, the asset is written down by the amount by which the carrying value of the asset exceeds the related fair value of the asset with the related impairment charge recognized within the statements of operations. No impairment losses were identified or recorded in the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 on the Company’s long-lived assets.
Operating lease assets are included within operating lease right-of-use assets, and the corresponding operating lease obligation on the consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2020. The Company has elected not to present short-term leases as these leases have a lease term of 12 months or less at lease inception and do not contain purchase options or renewal terms that the Company is reasonably certain to exercise. All other lease assets and lease liabilities are recognized based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term at commencement date. Because most of the Company’s leases do not provide an implicit rate of return, the Company used an incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at adoption date in determining the present value of lease payments.
The Company recognizes revenue in accordance with ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, the core principle of which is that an entity should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled to receive in exchange for those goods or services. To achieve this core principle, five basic criteria must be met before revenue can be recognized: (1) identify the contract with a customer; (2) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (3) determine the transaction price; (4) allocate the transaction price to performance obligations in the contract; and (5) recognize revenue when or as the Company satisfies a performance obligation.
Nature of goods and services
The following is a description of the Company’s products and services from which the Company generates revenue, as well as the nature, timing of satisfaction of performance obligations, and significant payment terms for each:
Product revenue from customer contracts is recognized on the sale of each Electric Vehicle as vehicles are shipped to customers. The majority of the Company’s vehicle sales orders generally have only one performance obligation: sale of complete vehicles. Ownership and risk of loss transfers to the customer based on FOB shipping point and freight charges are the responsibility of the customer. Revenue is typically recognized at the point in which control transfers or in accordance with payment terms customary to the business. The Company provides product warranties to assure that the product assembly complies with agreed upon specifications. The Company’s product warranty is similar in all material respects to the product warranties provided by the Company’s suppliers, therefore minimizing the warranty liability to the standard labor rates associated with the defective part replacement. Customers do not have the option to purchase a warranty separately; as such, warranty is not accounted for as a separate performance obligation. The Company’s policy is to exclude taxes collected from a customer from the transaction price of automotive contracts.
Amounts billed to customers related to shipping and handling are classified as shipping revenue. The Company has elected to recognize the cost for freight and shipping when control over vehicles has transferred to the customer as a selling expense. The Company has reported shipping expenses of $134,310 and $75,791 for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
Subscription revenue from revenue sharing with Destination Fleet Operators (“DFO”) and other vehicle rental agreements is recorded in the month the vehicles in the Company’s fleet is rented. The Company established its rental fleet in late March 2019 which is recorded in the property and equipment section of the accompanying consolidated balance sheets – see Note 7. For the rental fleet, the Company retains title and ownership to the vehicles and places them in DFO’s in resort communities that typically rent golf cars for use in those communities. In August 2020, the Company phased-out the production of its 311 line of vehicles in order to develop a new line of vehicles. The change in production did not represent a strategic shift that will have a major effect on the Company’s operations or financial results.
Services and other revenue
Services and other revenue consist of non-warranty after-sales vehicle services. Revenue is typically recognized at a point in time when services and replacement parts are provided.
The Company operates in one business segment which focuses on the manufacturing and sales of environmentally-conscious, minimal-footprint EVs. The Company’s business offerings have similar economic and other characteristics, including the nature of products, manufacturing, types of customers, and distribution methods. The chief operating decision maker (CODM) reviews profit and loss information on a consolidated basis to assess performance and make overall operating decisions. The consolidated financial statements reflect the financial results of the Company’s one reportable operating segment. The Company has no significant revenues or tangible assets outside of the United States.
The Company accounts for income tax using an asset and liability approach, which allows for the recognition of deferred tax benefits in future years. Under the asset and liability approach, deferred taxes are provided for the net tax effects of temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the amounts used for income tax purposes. The accounting for deferred income tax calculation represents management’s best estimate on the most likely future tax consequences of events that have been recognized in the consolidated financial statements or tax returns and related future anticipation. A valuation allowance is provided for deferred tax assets if it is more likely than not these items will either expire before the Company is able to realize their benefits, or that future realization is uncertain. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, there were no accruals for uncertain tax positions.
Warrants and Preferred Shares
The accounting treatment of warrants and preferred share series issued is determined pursuant to the guidance provided by ASC 470, Debt, ASC 480, Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity, and ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging, as applicable. Each feature of a freestanding financial instruments including, without limitation, any rights relating to subsequent dilutive issuances, dividend issuances, equity sales, rights offerings, forced conversions, optional redemptions, automatic monthly conversions, dividends and exercise are assessed with determinations made regarding the proper classification in the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
The Company accounts for stock-based compensation in accordance with ASC 718, Compensation-Stock Compensation (“ASC 718”). The Company recognizes all employee share-based compensation as an expense in the financial statements on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period, based on the terms of the awards. Equity-classified awards principally related to stock options, restricted stock units (“RSUs”) and equity-based compensation, are measured at the grant date fair value of the award. The Company determines grant date fair value of stock option awards using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. The fair value of RSUs is determined using the closing price of the Company’s common stock on the grant date. For service based vesting grants, expense is recognized ratably over the requisite service period based on the number of options or shares. Stock-based compensation is reversed for forfeitures in the period of forfeiture.
In June 2018, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued ASU 2018-07, Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting (“ASU 2018-07”). ASU 2018-07 expands the guidance in ASC 718 to include share-based payments for goods and services to non-employees and generally aligns it with the guidance for share-based payments to employees. In accordance with ASU 2018-07, these stock options and warrants issued as compensation for services provided to the Company are accounted for based upon the fair value of the underlying equity instrument. The attribution of the fair value of the equity instrument is charged directly to compensation expense over the period during which services are rendered.
Basic and Diluted Loss Per Share
Basic and diluted net loss per share is determined by dividing net loss by the weighted average ordinary shares outstanding during the period. For all periods presented with a net loss, the shares underlying the ordinary share options and warrants have been excluded from the calculation because their effect would be anti-dilutive. Therefore, the weighted-average shares outstanding used to calculate both basic and diluted loss per share are the same for periods with a net loss.
On May 28, 2020, pursuant to the previously announced Merger Agreement, dated December 19, 2019, the Company issued prefunded common stock warrants to purchase 1,193,391 shares of the Company’s common stock to certain investors (“Penny Warrants”). Penny warrants were included in the calculation of outstanding shares for purposes of basic earnings per share.
The following potentially dilutive securities have been excluded from the computation of diluted weighted average shares outstanding as they would be anti-dilutive:
Research and development costs
Costs are incurred in connection with research and development programs that are expected to contribute to future earnings. Such costs include labor, stock-based compensation, training, software subscriptions, and consulting. These amounts are charged to the consolidated statement of operations as incurred. Total research and development expenses included were $1,920,548 and $714,281 for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In October 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-10, Codification Improvements. The guidance contains improvements to the Codification by ensuring that all guidance that requires or provides an option for an entity to provide information in the notes to financial statements is codified in the Disclosure Section of the Codification. The guidance also contains Codifications that are varied in nature and may affect the application of the guidance in cases in which the original guidance may have been unclear. For public business entities, the amendments in the ASU are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020. For all other entities, the amendments are effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2021, and interim periods within annual periods beginning after December 15, 2022. Early adoption is permitted. The Company does not expect the adoption of ASU 2020-10 to have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-06, Debt – Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging – Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40); Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity (“ASU 2020-06”), which addresses issues identified as a result of the complexities associated with applying GAAP for certain financial instruments with characteristics of liabilities and equity. This update addresses, among other things, the number of accounting models for convertible debt instruments and convertible preferred stock, targeted improvements to the disclosures for convertible instruments and earnings-per-share (“EPS”) guidance and amendments to the guidance for the derivatives scope exception for contracts in an entity’s own equity, as well as the related EPS guidance. This update applies to all entities that issue convertible instruments and/or contracts in an entity’s own equity. This guidance is effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021, and interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted, but no earlier than fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020, including interim periods within those fiscal years. FASB specified that an entity should adopt the guidance as of the beginning of its annual fiscal year. The Company is currently evaluating the impact the adoption of ASU 2020-06 could have on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and disclosures.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13 - Financial Instruments-Credit Losses-Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. Codification Improvements to Topic 326, Financial Instruments – Credit Losses, have been released in November 2018 (2018-19), November 2019 (2019-10 and 2019-11) and a January 2020 Update (2020-02) that provided additional guidance on this Topic. This guidance replaces the current incurred loss impairment methodology with a methodology that reflects expected credit losses and requires consideration of a broader range of reasonable and supportable information to inform credit loss estimates. For SEC filers meeting certain criteria, the amendments in this ASU are effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2019. For SEC filers that meet the criteria of a smaller reporting company (including this Company) and for non-SEC registrant public companies and other organizations, the amendments in this ASU are effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2022. Early adoption will be permitted for all organizations for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2019. The Company is currently in the process of its analysis of the impact of this guidance on its consolidated financial statements and does not expect the adoption of this guidance to have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (ASC 820): Disclosure Framework-Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement. ASU 2018-13 removes certain disclosures, modifies certain disclosures and adds additional disclosures. The ASU is effective for annual periods, including interim periods within those annual periods, beginning after December 15, 2019. Early adoption is permitted. The Company adopted the new standard on January 1, 2020, and the adoption did not have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
In July 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-11—Earnings Per Share (Topic 260), Distinguishing Liabilities From Equity (Topic 480), and Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): I. Accounting for Certain Financial Instruments with Down Round Features and II. Replacement of the Indefinite Deferral for Mandatorily Redeemable Financial Instruments of Certain Nonpublic Entities and Certain Mandatorily Redeemable Noncontrolling Interests with a Scope Exception. ASU 2017-11 eliminates the requirement that a down round feature precludes equity classification when assessing whether an instrument is indexed to an entity’s own stock. A freestanding equity-linked financial instrument no longer would be accounted for as a derivative liability at fair value as a result of the existence of a down round feature. The Company adopted the new standard on January 1, 2020, and the adoption did not have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef